. Solubilities of the halides, nitrates, carbonates, sulfates, and some perchlorates of all the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in methanol at room temperature have been determined. Introduction: Alkali metals are six chemicals elements that make up group 1 (1a) of the periodic table namely, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). Amongst fluorides of alkali metals, the lowest solubility of LiF in water is due to (a) ionic nature of lithium fluoride. The correct order of the mobility of the alkali metal ions in aqueous solutions Rb+ > K+ > Na+ > Li+ due to following order of hydration energy of these ions Li+ > Na+ > K+ > Rb+ and due to hydration of ion, mobility decreases. To distinguish potassium and other heavy alkali metal cations. 2) The solubility of most of the alkali metal halides except those of fluoride decreases on descending the group since the decrease in hydration enthalpy is more than the corresponding decrease in the lattice enthalpy. Amongst fluorides of alkali metals, the lowest solubility of LiF in water is due to (i) Ionic nature of lithium fluoride (ii) High lattice enthalpy (iii) High hydration enthalpy for lithium ion (iv) Low ionisation enthalpy of lithium atom The solubility of metal halides depends on their nature, lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy of the individual ions. If you need to memorise the solubility rules for ionic compounds in water at 25°C, then the list above is useful. When alkali metals The Group 1 elements in the periodic table are known as the alkali metals. (b) high lattice enthalpy. Q9. Alkali metal fluoride: LiF: NaF: KF: RbF: CsF: Solubility in water (g/L) 2.7: 42: 1020: 1310: 3700 With increase in the atomic number of alkaline earth metals, the solubility of oxides, sulphides, hydroxides and fluorides increases. v) Solubility in liquid ammonia Alkali metals dissolves and form solution in liquid ammonia. (a) Nitrates (b) Carbonates (c) Sulphates Answer: (a) Nitrates of both group 1 and group 2 elements are soluble in water because hydration energy is more than the lattice energy. 1984 Nov;31(11):1036-40. doi: 10.1016/0039-9140(84)80244-1. LiF is soluble in non-polar solvents like kerosene. Solubility Rules as a Table. This is due to decrease in the lattice energy. Compare the solubility and thermal stability of the following compounds of the alkali metals with those of the alkaline earth metals. However, all that information can be placed in a table as shown below, which makes it easier to locate solubility information for a particular ionic compound made up of a particular cation and a particular anion. They include lithium, sodium and potassium, which all react vigorously with water to produce an alkaline solution. Data on some, such as cesium and rubidium fluoride, nitrate, carbonate, and sulfate, appear to be reported for the first time. The solubility of alkali-metal fluorides in non-aqueous solvents with and without crown ethers, as determined by flame emission spectrometry Talanta . ‘ (c) high hydration enthalpy for lithium ion. For Ex: LiF is almost insoluble in water due to its high lattice energy.The low solubility of CsI is due to smaller hydration energy of the two ions. . Lithium halides LiBr and LiI are covalent compound. Melting point nad boiling point of particular alkali metal follow the order Fluorides > Chlorides > Bromides > Iodides. 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