The obtained ZnO@silica core-shell nanoparticles exhibited excellent water stability, and the visible emissions of ZnO were retained. We now gradually discover that the impact of zinc on the health of our body might be as far-reaching as that of iron. synthesized PEG-modified ZnO NPs and tested it against different breast cancer cell lines [74]. XPS results indicate the presence of zinc atoms with oxidation state Zn2+. 5. used the coprecipitation technique to get PEG 600 solution-modified ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO/PEG NPs), following the loading of doxorubicin (DOX) to form DOX-ZnO/PEG nanocomposites [52]. ZnO nanopowders are available as powders and dispersions. The hyperglycemia can directly enhance an inflammatory state by regulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines, such as interleukins, which is involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Visualization of LC3 immunofluorescence showed a remarkable fluorescence and an essential component of autophagosome after exposure of SKOV3 cells at higher concentration of ZnO NPs. The anti-inflammatory activity of ZnO NPs is not confined to atopic dermatitis treatment but has also shown to be very effective for other inflammatory diseases. Some possible ways to produce ZnO nano-particles are laser ablation, hydrothermal methods, electrochemical depositions, sol–gel method, chemical vapor deposition, thermal decomposition, A. Sheikh, K. M. Hoque, and P. Chakrabarti, “The antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles against, K. Ghule, A. V. Ghule, B. J. Chen, and Y. C. Ling, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles coated paper and its antibacterial activity study,”, A. Iswarya, B. Vaseeharan, M. Anjugam et al., “Multipurpose efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles coated by the crustacean immune molecule beta-1,3-glucan binding protein: toxicity on HepG2 liver cancer cells and bacterial pathogens,”, M. Shaban, F. Mohamed, and S. Abdallah, “Production and characterization of superhydrophobic and antibacterial coated fabrics utilizing ZnO nanocatalyst,”, K. Karthik, S. Dhanuskodi, C. Gobinath, and S. Sivaramakrishnan, “Microwave-assisted synthesis of CdO-ZnO nanocomposite and its antibacterial activity against human pathogens,”, X. Bellanger, P. Billard, R. Schneider, L. Balan, and C. Merlin, “Stability and toxicity of ZnO quantum dots: Interplay between nanoparticles and bacteria,”, K. Dedkova, B. Janikova, K. Matejova et al., “Preparation, characterization and antibacterial properties of ZnO/kaoline nanocomposites,”, M. Ramani, S. Ponnusamy, C. Muthamizhchelvan, J. Cullen, S. Krishnamurthy, and E. Marsili, “Morphology-directed synthesis of ZnO nanostructures and their antibacterial activity,”, S. Soren, S. Kumar, S. Mishra, P. K. Jena, S. K. Verma, and P. Parhi, “Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of the zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by aqueous and polyol method,”, W. Salem, D. R. Leitner, F. G. Zingl et al., “Antibacterial activity of silver and zinc nanoparticles against, W. Wu, T. Liu, H. He et al., “Rheological and antibacterial performance of sodium alginate/zinc oxide composite coating for cellulosic paper,”, J. Lee, K. H. Choi, J. Min, H. J. Kim, J. P. Jee, and B. J. Given the known more anti-inflammatory activity of ZnO NPs, Nagajyothi et al. The antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs in different bacterial species is presented in Table 2. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. to reproduce figures, diagrams etc. ZnO NPs present certain cytotoxicity in cancer cells mainly by themselves based on a higher intracellular release of dissolved zinc ions, followed by increased ROS induction and induced cancer cell death via the apoptosis signaling pathway. ZnO NPs prepared by this method exhibited strong potential for biomedical applications such as its excellent anticancer and antibacterial activity. A broad variety of plant extract are used for the biosynthesis of ZnO NPs such as the leaf of Azadirachta indica (L.) [23], Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) [24], Plectranthus amboinicus [25], Andrographis paniculata [26], Aloe barbadensis [27, 28], the peel of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L) [29], the root extract of Polygala tenuifolia [30], the rhizome extract of Zingiber officinale [31], the flower extract of Trifolium pratense [32], Jacaranda mimosifolia [33], the seeds of Physalis alkekengi L [34], and so on. The central attention is on the functionalization of the ZnO NPs surface with different kinds of biological molecules comprising different types of proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, folic acid, hyaluronan, and so on [47, 57, 71–73]. If you are the author of this article you do not need to formally request permission It found that ZnO NPs with small dimensions at higher doses (3 and 10 mg/kg) had a much greater antidiabetic effect compared to ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg). Previous studies have indicated that ROS and autophagy are involved in the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs, but the regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and ROS remain to be elucidated. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with the respected materials, twice/week for eight consecutive weeks. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Centre of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Laboratory for Molecular Tumor Biology, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany B. Patil, “Effect of morphology and crystallite size on solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide synthesized by solution free mechanochemical method,”, K. Elumalai and S. Velmurugan, “Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of, C. Mahendra, M. Murali, G. Manasa et al., “Antibacterial and antimitotic potential of bio-fabricated zinc oxide nanoparticles of, G. Rajakumar, M. Thiruvengadam, G. Mydhili, T. Gomathi, and I. M. Chung, “Green approach for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from, Y. G. Qian, J. Yao, M. Russel, K. Chen, and X. Y. Wang, “Characterization of green synthesized nano-formulation (ZnO-A. 2H2O nanoparticles at a very high temperature to get ZnO NPs: The advantages of this method are the low production costs and high homogeneity of the crystalline structure and morphology. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. Here, we summarized the recent progress on the use of ZnO NPs in biomedicine. Department of Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz, Germany. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are widely used in almost every area of life. Since the advent of nanoparticles and considering these biological activities of zinc ions, the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnO NPs have also attracted much attention. This article provides further detail on the properties and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). Zinc oxide is known to protect the stomach and intestinal tract from damage by E. coli [ 65 ]. E-mail: As shown in Figure 2, prior reports had suggested the main antibacterial toxicity mechanisms of ZnO NPs were based on their ability to induce excess ROS generation, such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals, and hydrogen peroxide production [10]. Diabetes mellitus is a serious public health problem, and the WHO has estimated that, in 2014, there were more than 400 million adults with diabetes all over the world [99]. They also detected the antibacterial activity of the ZnO NPs in cholera toxin (CT) mouse models. The ZnO@polymer core-shell nanoparticles exhibited high quantum yield and very stable broad photoluminescence in aqueous solutions. The upper part is the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image of the ZnO@polymer core-shell nanoparticles and the aqueous solutions of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 under a UV light; the middle part is the DIC picture and the fluorescent image of the human hepatoma cells labeled by ZnO-1; and the lower part is the DIC picture and the fluorescent image of the hepatoma cells labeled by ZnO-2 [. This autophagy induction was positively correlated with the dissolution of ZnO NPs in lysosomes to release zinc ions, and zinc ions released from ZnO NPs were able to damage lysosomes, leading to impaired autophagic flux and mitochondria. Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP. This perspective outlines the current state of knowledge concerning the interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles with eukaryotic cells and the human body. Therefore, ZnO NPs as a novel agent in order for zinc delivery have been developed and evaluated for their antidiabetic potential. They exhibit antibacterial, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV filtering properties. This perspective outlines the current state of knowledge concerning the interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles with eukaryotic cells and the human body. Our Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles portfolio consist of particles with diameters ranging from 16 to 40 nanometers and find applications in several industries. Go to our Park, “Functionalized ZnO nanoparticles with gallic acid for antioxidant and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant, T. Ohira and O. Yamamoto, “Correlation between antibacterial activity and crystallite size on ceramics,”, S. Sarwar, A. Ali, M. Pal, and P. Chakrabarti, “Zinc oxide nanoparticles provide anti-cholera activity by disrupting the interaction of cholera toxin with the human GM1 receptor,”, S. N. Seclen, M. E. Rosas, A. J. Arias, and C. A. Medina, “Elevated incidence rates of diabetes in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study,”, A. Nazarizadeh and S. Asri-Rezaie, “Comparative study of antidiabetic activity and oxidative stress induced by zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc sulfate in diabetic rats,”, R. D. Umrani and K. M. Paknikar, “Zinc oxide nanoparticles show antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 and 2 diabetic rats,”, R. Malizia, A. Scorsone, P. D’Angelo, C. Lo Pinto, L. Pitrolo, and C. Giordano, “Zinc deficiency and cell-mediated and humoral autoimmunity of insulin-dependent diabetes in thalassemic subjects,”, R. Kitture, K. Chordiya, S. Gaware et al., “ZnO nanoparticles-red sandalwood conjugate: a promising anti-diabetic agent,”, J. Hussein, M. El-Banna, T. A. Razik, and M. E. El-Naggar, “Biocompatible zinc oxide nanocrystals stabilized via hydroxyethyl cellulose for mitigation of diabetic complications,”, A. Bayrami, S. Parvinroo, A. Habibi-Yangjeh, and S. Rahim Pouran, “Bio-extract-mediated ZnO nanoparticles: microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and antidiabetic activity evaluation,”, A. Amiri, R. A. F. Dehkordi, M. S. Heidarnejad, and M. J. Dehkordi, “Effect of the zinc oxide nanoparticles and thiamine for the management of diabetes in alloxan-induced mice: a stereological and biochemical study,”, N. S. Wahba, S. F. Shaban, A. By targeting the specific sites of cancer cells, nanoparticle-based drug delivery could reduce the overall amount of drugs used and thus minimize undesirable side effects [9, 66]. For AFM, the zinc oxide nanoparticles suspended into water were placed onto cleaved mica … SEM images of the ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using Cassava … The zinc oxide nanoparticles are commonly used in cosmetics industry like sun screen lotions due to its UV purifying properties (Wodka et al., 2010).The zinc oxide nanoparticles has wide range of biomedical applications. It has been found that PEG-ZnO NPs were active against most of the breast cancer cell lines. * However, most studies have focused on their inhibitory actions on bacterial infections, and there is limited studies evaluating the interaction between ZnO-NPs and viruses. Corresponding authors, a In addition, it can be coated on various substrates to prevent bacteria from adhering, spreading, and breeding in medical devices. Zhang et al. We evaluate the potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles as innovative anti-tumor agents by summarizing important results of current studies in this field and discuss the proposed mechanisms that give zinc oxide nanoparticles a selective toxicity for tumor cells. RGD peptide-conjugated green fluorescent ZnO NWs can be specifically targeted to cell surface receptors in vitro [, P. K. Mishra, H. Mishra, A. Ekielski, S. Talegaonkar, and B. Vaidya, “Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a promising nanomaterial for biomedical applications,”, T. G. Smijs and S. Pavel, “Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness,”, J. Although ZnO in nanoparticle form is a promising antibacterial agent due to its wide activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the exact antibacterial mechanism of ZnO NPs has not been well established. ZnO NPs have exhibited promising biomedical applications based on its anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, drug delivery, as well as bioimaging activity. Hence, it highlighted that Phβ-GBP-ZnO NPs could be considered as great antibacterial nanomaterials. The conjugated ZnO-RSW displayed 61.93% of inhibition in glucosidase while the bare ZnO NPs and RSW showed 21.48% and 5.90%, respectively. It appeared to increase the toxicity of the ZnO NPs to breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells at lower doses. It was found that ZnO NPs could induce the CT secondary structure collapsed gradually and interact with CT by interrupting CT binding with the GM1 anglioside receptor [98]. Physical and chemical methods for ZnO NPs preparations have widely developed. A. Ruszkiewicz, A. Pinkas, B. Ferrer, T. V. Peres, A. Tsatsakis, and M. Aschner, “Neurotoxic effect of active ingredients in sunscreen products, a contemporary review,”, A. Kolodziejczak-Radzimska and T. Jesionowski, “Zinc oxide–from synthesis to application: a review,”, S. Sahoo, M. Maiti, A. Ganguly, J. J. George, and A. K. Bhowmick, “Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles as cure activator on the properties of natural rubber and nitrile rubber,”, M. D. Newman, M. Stotland, and J. I. Ellis, “The safety of nanosized particles in titanium dioxide- and zinc oxide-based sunscreens,”, A. Hatamie, A. Khan, M. Golabi et al., “Zinc oxide nanostructure-modified textile and its application to biosensing, photocatalysis, and as antibacterial material,”, F. X. Xiao, S. F. Hung, H. B. Tao, J. Miao, H. B. Yang, and B. Liu, “Spatially branched hierarchical ZnO nanorod-TiO, J. W. Rasmussen, E. Martinez, P. Louka, and D. G. Wingett, “Zinc oxide nanoparticles for selective destruction of tumor cells and potential for drug delivery applications,”, Z. Y. Zhang and H. M. Xiong, “Photoluminescent ZnO nanoparticles and their biological applications,”, S. Kim, S. Y. Lee, and H. J. Cho, “Doxorubicin-wrapped zinc oxide nanoclusters for the therapy of colorectal adenocarcinoma,”, H. M. Xiong, “ZnO nanoparticles applied to bioimaging and drug delivery,”, M. A. Majeed Khan, M. Wasi Khan, M. Alhoshan, M. S. AlSalhi, and A. S. Aldwayyan, “Influences of Co doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured,”, G. Bisht, S. Rayamajhi, B. Kc, S. N. Paudel, D. Karna, and B. G. Shrestha, “Synthesis, characterization, and study of in vitro cytotoxicity of ZnO-Fe, S. Bettini, R. Pagano, V. Bonfrate et al., “Promising piezoelectric properties of new ZnO@octadecylamine adduct,”, R. Pagano, A. Quarta, S. Pal, A. Licciulli, L. Valli, and S. Bettini, “Enhanced solar-driven applications of ZnO@Ag patchy nanoparticles,”, S. Bettini, R. Pagano, L. Valli, and G. Giancane, “Enhancement of open circuit voltage of a ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cell by means of piezotronic effect,”, L. Spanhel and M. A. Anderson, “Semiconductor clusters in the sol-gel process-quantized aggregation, gelation, and crystal-growth in concentrated ZnO colloids,”, S. Rani, P. Suri, P. Shishodia, and R. Mehra, “Synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO powder via sol–gel route for dye-sensitized solar cells,”, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Zhang, L. G. Zhang, J. S. Yuan, S. G. Yan, and C. Y. Wang, “Low-temperature synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by solid-state pyrolytic reaction,”, L. Shen, N. Bao, K. Yanagisawa, K. Domen, A. Gupta, and C. A. Grimes, “Direct synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by a solution-free mechanochemical reaction,”, S. K. Pardeshi and A. ZnO NPs, as a new type of the low-cost and low-toxicity nanomaterial, have attracted tremendous interest in various biomedical fields, including anticancer, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as for drug delivery and bioimaging applications [9, 12]. Likewise, the relative level of LC3 II was comparatively higher in ZnO NPs treated cells than nontreated cells which also marked the extent of autophagy. In general, the anticancer activity of nanoscaled ZnO materials with prominent functionality may provide a new opportunity for exploiting ZnO NPs in treating cancer diseases. The XRD patterns and Raman spectra show that both synthesis routes lead to single-phase ZnO. Hussein et al. 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