Jung and Avolio (2000) confirmed that trust in the team leader helps to explain the impact of transformational leadership on performance. Leadership is “the process of influencing individuals or groups so as to achieve group goals” (Hoyt & Blascovich, 2003, p. 679). In conclusion, the findings offer theoretical and empirical valuable insights into how transformational leadership impacts team performance through various mediating variables. Dirks and Skarlicki (2004) suggested that focusing solely on a team’s trust in a supervisor may ignore other important referents. Data collected from 39 teams find that team cognitive trust as two process variables involves a transformational leadership process in which cognitive trust in the team leader and cognitive trust among team members mediate the impact of this leadership style on collective efficacy. Based on the results of previous studies, we propose the following hypothesis. The effects of transformational leadership on teachers’ commitment to change in Hongkong. A larger sample size should be included in the future research to capture the effects of team size and task type. Yu, H., Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2002). Figure 2 illustrates the path coefficients of the proposed research model. There remain many other group variables, such as identification (Wang & Howell, 2012) and cohesion (Nielsen & Daniels, 2012), that could bond team members together, in achieving group outcomes. Dirks and Skarlicki (2004) suggested that a team leader not only takes action to build the team’s trust in the team leader but also fosters the development of trust among team members necessary to perform a given task effectively. Transformational Leadership is a style first described by American historian and political scientist James MacGregor Burns in his 1978 book Leadership and expanded on during the 1980s by fellow scholar Bernard M. Bass. In keeping with our hypotheses, the results extend the available literature, unearthing the m… A total of 27 teams (58.7%) were temporary in nature. In attempting to understand the roles of cognitive trust and collective efficacy in the transformational leadership−team performance relationship, this study proposed five hypotheses with aims to examine how transformational leadership and cognitive trust affect collective efficacy, which therefore influences team performance. Cognitive trust in the team leader and cognitive trust among team members significantly mediated the transformational leadership−collective efficacy relationship (Hypotheses 4 and 5). Sharing links are not available for this article. The measures were adapted from Kanawattanachai and Yoo (2002). The formation of collective efficacy by way of the impact of two types of team cognitive trust was confirmed (Hypothesis 2). New York: Academic Press, 49–80. Hsiu-Hua Chang completed her PhD at the Department of Information Management, National Central University, Taiwan. Finally, the first author administered a panel meeting to refine the translation. What is the relationship between a transformational leadership and cognitive trust among team members? — and Bruce J. Avolio. The Sobel test (1982) was used to examine the mediation effect of team cognitive trust. A Pulitzer Prize–winning historian examines transformational leaders from Moses to Machiavelli to Martin Luther King Jr. in this “impressive book” (The Washington Post). For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. This study confirmed the two elements of team cognitive trust, which is cognitive trust in the team leader and cognitive trust among team members. Collective efficacy involves individuals’ perceptions regarding the group’s performance capability (Kozub & McDonnell, 2000). Team Performance in a Transformational Leadership Process, Transformational Leadership and Team Performance, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/openaccess.htm, Akgün, Keskin, Byrne, and Imamoglu (2007), Gully, Beaubien, Incalcaterra, & Joshi, 2002, Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990, Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006, Transformational Leadership and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement. We suggest that team cognitive trust may simultaneously emerge in the interaction among team members and leaders as well as during the teamwork process. Sosik, Avolio, and Kahai (1997) found that transformational leadership positively affects the level of creative output generated by team members. (, Arnold, K. A., Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K. (, Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., Frey, D. (, Burke, C. S., Sims, D. E., Lazzara, E. H., Salas, E. (, Cheung, S. O., Ng, S. T., Lam, K. C., Yue, W. M. (, Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L., Newsted, P. R. (, Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B. J., Shamir, B. This implies that transformational leaders can facilitate interdependent work among group members and encourage members to work together, help team members establish a sense of cognitive trust, and foster positive feelings among themselves. In other words, effectiveness reflects the assessment of outcomes, while efficiency is the assessment of input. (1986) Transformational leadership and the falling dominoes effect (Tech. Consistent with Burke et al.’s (2007) framework, our findings empirically confirmed that team cognitive trust under the transformational leadership process was related to proximal outcomes (collective efficacy) and distal outcomes (team performance). When a team leader displays a transformational leader style, team members will perceive a high level of team cognitive trust and therefore will be more likely to perceive to others’ ability and reliability to perform a task (Kanawattanachai & Yoo, 2007; McAllister, 1995). the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Bass and Avolio, 1993. Team types included IS (information systems) integration (12), quality improvement (11), R&D (7), business management (5), customer service (3), production (1), sales (1), and others (6). white squares represent transformational leadership characteristics. The aim of this study was to empirically examine the proposed model with collective efficacy and team cognitive trust as the mediators of the transformational leadership−team performance relationship. Transformational leadership or the iron cage: Which predicts trust, commitment and team efficacy? The confirmation of Hypothesis 3 revealed that transformational leadership had a greater association with cognitive trust in the team leader than with cognitive trust among team members. The original instrument adopted in this study is the English version, and therefore a panel of experts including authors was responsible for translating the instrument into Chinese. AvolioTransformational leadership and organizational culture. Akgün et al. As depicted in Table 2, the showed t values and the corresponding z values for the Sobel test were all significant. A sample item for cognitive trust in the team leader is, “I see no reason to doubt my team leader’s competence and preparation for the job.” A sample item for cognitive trust among team members is, “I see no reason to doubt my teammates’ competence and preparation for the job.” Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for cognitive trust in the team leader and for trust among team members were = .848 and .799, respectively, which exceeded the threshold of .7 (Nunnally, 1978). Third, self-reported team performance may bias the results. The low response rate of 28.75% and the small sample size of 39 teams in the present study limited this possibility. The transactional and transformational theories of leadership developed by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985) ... Google Scholar; Bass B. M. , Waldman D. A. , Avolio B. J. Each aspect of transformational leadership including charisma, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration was measured by six items, respectively. B.M. This study therefore hypothesizes that the effect of cognitive trust among team members on collective efficacy is stronger than the effect of cognitive trust in the team leader on collective efficacy. Google Scholar. The average Rwg coefficients of cognitive trust in the team leader, cognitive trust among team members, collective efficacy, and team performance were .970, .966, .972, and .971, respectively. Kanawattanachai and Yoo (2007) indicated that cognitive trust grounded in the beliefs regarding others’ ability and reliability to accomplish a task (Kanawattanachai & Yoo, 2007). Thus, Hypothesis 3 was supported. All path coefficients are statistically significant at .01 level. The sample consisted of various team types from different organizations in Taiwan. The Role of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy in Resources Acquisition in ... Akgün, A. E., Keskin, H., Byrne, J., Imamoglu, S. Z. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Huey-Wen Chou, Yu-Hsun Lin, Hsiu-Hua Chang, and Wen-Wei Chuang, This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (. However, the relationship between these factors has not been fully scrutinized, especially in a project team context. Accordingly, team cognitive trust is likely to be related to a team’s collective efficacy in the transformational leadership process. 1 Review. The leader encourages followers to explore new ways of doing things and new opportunities to learn. Link , Google Scholar For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. According to Chin et al.’s (2003) suggestion, the sample size requirement for the PLS approach should equal to or above 10 times the largest numbers of structural paths directed toward a particular construct. We empirically assessed the antecedents (transformational leadership) and consequences (collective efficacy) of team cognitive trust. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Second, we characterized team cognitive trust using two referents, cognitive trust in the leader and cognitive trust among team members. Manifestation of emotional intelligence and Transformational leadershi... Trust and performance in business teams: a meta-analysis. Login failed. The transformational leadership directly helped foster members’ cognitive trust in the team leader and cognitive trust among team member. Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability were used to examine reliability. The instruments used to measure research variables are described below. Burke et al. Five items were measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale (from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). They were to evaluate how frequently, on average, their team leader displayed the described behaviors on a 5-point response scale (from 1 = never to 5 = always). In teamwork settings, team members collaborate and rely on other members’ competency and professionalism to complete the assigned task. Efficiency refers to the adherence to schedules and budgets. Nurses’ perceptions of nurse leaders’ transformational leadership are positively associated with their personal accomplishment and negatively correlated with their emotional exhaustion, which are symptoms of nurse burnout. Despite the commonly used social exchange theory perspective, our study showed how transformational leadership influences followers’ knowledge sharing behavior via a sensegiving perspective. Cognitive trust refers to individual beliefs about peer reliability and dependability (McAllister, 1995). Among these, the transformational leadership style has been one of the most cited theories of leadership (Judge & Bono, 2000). If a team builds stronger cognitive trust among team members, members of the team are willing to put more efforts to work together and become more confident in the group’s ability to successfully complete a task. Shamir, House, and Arthur (1993) suggested that transformational leaders build followers’ personal and social identification and enhance members’ feelings of cohesiveness. The values of VIF for all constructs are smaller than the threshold value of 10 (Hair et al., 2006). Few studies have addressed this question. Team performance refers to the extent to which a team meets established objectives for quality, cost, and time (Hoegl & Gemuenden, 2001). Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Cognitive trust in the team leader, however, is members’ confidence in the team leader. Effective Passive Ineffective Active Idealized Influence Intellectual Stimulation Individualized Consideration Contingent Reward Management by Exception (Active) Laissez Faire Management by Exception (Passive) Inspirational Motivation ˙% 4 7 (, Kumar, N., Stern, L. W., Anderson, J. C. (, McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., Cherany, N. L. (, Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R., Fetter, R. (, Shamir, B., House, R. J., Arthur, M. B. Jung and Avolio (2000) identified three dimensions of team performance: quantity, quality, and satisfaction. Transformational leaders provide change and movement in their organizations. Table 1. Declaration of Conflicting InterestsThe author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. She received her PhD from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In addition, the finding of the study described a sample from project teams. Transformational leadership refers to leaders with an appealing vision for their team who intellectually stimulate others in a way that is demanding and appreciative of … The literature (e.g., Avolio & Bass, 1995; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990) has confirmed that trust in the leader is a consequence of transformational leadership because transformational leaders empower and encourage followers to make decisions, thus gaining their followers’ trust. The findings confirmed that two distinct constructs of team cognitive trust can be empirically classified, and the development of collective efficacy is largely dependent on cognitive trust among team members. The result of the study provided empirical support for our proposed model and further confirmed the important role of team cognitive trust in the transformational leadership process. Constructs depicted in dashed lines represent mediating variables (n = 39). A multilevel investigation of the transformational leadership in relation to trust, efficacy, identification, and cohesion may provide our richer understandings of how team performance and follower outcomes could be achieved by series of mediating process. . ... Google Scholar 6. Descriptive Statistics, AVE, Composite Reliability, and Correlation Matrix of Studied Variables (n = 39). View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. transformational leadership is highly effective in terms of subordinates’ development and performance. For transformational leadership, the average Rwg coefficients of charisma, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration were .967, .970, .968, .957, and .98, respectively. The number of people per team ranged from 3 to 35 with an average of 8.78 people. Hypothesis 3: A transformational leadership style has a different effect on cognitive trust in the team leader as its effect on cognitive trust among team members. The path coefficient of transformational leadership style to cognitive trust in the team leader was positively significant (β = 0.758, p < .01) and the magnitude is larger than the path coefficient of transformational leadership to cognitive trust among team members (β = 0.507, p < .01). KA Arnold, N Turner, J Barling, EK Kelloway, MC McKee Journal of … Hypothesis 2: Cognitive trust among team members has a stronger positive effect on collective efficacy than cognitive trust in the team leader does. Dvir, Eden, Avolio, and Shamir (2002) showed that transformational leadership is highly effective in terms of subordinates’ development and performance. In summary, this study helps to describe the two referents of cognitive trust as two separate process variables in the transformation leadership processes. Future research may avoid this by collecting multiple measures of team performance, such as supervisor’s evaluations of team performance or a team’s key performance indicator (KPI). It is important to know the relationship between transformational leadership … If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Therefore, Hypothesis 1 was supported. Thus, higher cognitive trust among team members would help enhance team’s collective efficacy. Team cognitive trust therefore may play a mediating role in the relation between transformational leadership and collective efficacy. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. (, Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. (, Kim, P. H., Ferrin, D. L., Cooper, C. D., Dirks, K. T. (, Kramer, R. M., Brewer, M. B., Hanna, B. A survey was conducted to empirically examine the proposed model. The result indicated that the collinearity effect in the constructs studied was not significant. Hypothesis 3 tested whether the impact of a transformational leadership style on cognitive trust in the team leader is greater than its impact on cognitive trust among team members. Transformational leadership is an empirically based form of leadership whose basic tenets and approach make it appealing for greater adoption in health care settings. The implications of transactional and transformational leadership for individual, team, and organizational development BM Bass, BJ Avolio Research in organizational change and development 4 … Kumar, Stern, and Anderson (1993) indicated that data collected from a single informant were highly correlated with team consensual data. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Although existing studies have already shown that transformational leadership is crucial in facilitating knowledge sharing among team members, our understanding on the underlying mechanism is largely limited. Therefore, the use of teams has become an essential feature in many organizations (Cohen & Bailey, 1997; Tasa, Taggar, & Seijts, 2007). The significant impact of collective efficacy on team performance (Hypothesis 1) was consistent with prior research findings (Gully et al., 2002; Tasa et al., 2007). Recent studies on group research have highlighted the development of cognitive trust and affective trust in the team process (Webber, 2008; Zhu et al., 2013). Hypothesis 5: A transformational leadership will have an indirect positive effect, mediated through cognitive trust among team members on collective efficacy. Transformational leadership and job behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. Second, the effects of selected control variables such as physical versus virtual teams, team size, and task type should be studied in future research. The transformational leadership model has been studied and applied to organizations such as schools, the military, hospitals, and banks. Although research on transformational leadership has consistently noted that there is an underlying process through which transformational leaders exhibit their influences on their fol - lowers’ development and ultimately facilitate team perfor- Effectiveness refers to the degree to which the team meets expectations regarding the quality of the outcome. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. The results indicated that cognitive trust in the team leader mediated the impact of transformational leadership on collective efficacy (z value for the Sobel test = 4.837, p < .01) and the effect of transformational leadership on collective efficacy was also significantly mediated by cognitive trust among team members (z value for the Sobel test = 4.869, p < .01). The Results for Testing Mediating Effect. Model 2 included two paths from cognitive trust in the team leader and cognitive trust among team members (two mediators) to collective efficacy (the dependent variable). Transformational leadership has been found to be positively associated with trust in the team leader, collective efficacy (e.g., Hoyt & Blascovich, 2003), and team performance (e.g., Hoyt & Blascovich, 2003; Jung & Avolio, 2000). This research adapts six items of Hoegl and Gemuenden’s (2001) measure to assess team performance. Confirmatory factor analysis was first conducted to assess the measurement model. Each question was measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale (from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Given the reports from management and scholars emphasizing the importance of teams for organizational success (Cohen & Bailey, 1997), understanding the antecedents of team performance is critical for academic and practitioner communities. Historian and political scientist James MacGregor Burns has spent much of his career documenting the use and misuse of power by leaders throughout history. Discriminant validity was confirmed by looking at the square root of AVE. 86-99). Rep. No. Enacted in its authentic form, transformational leadership enhances the motivation, morale Specifically, cognitive trust in team leader and cognitive trust among team member mediated the impact of transformational leadership on collective efficacy which, in turn, led to better team performance. McKnight, Cummings, and Cherany (1998) described trust as the belief and the willingness to depend on another party. Dirks and Skarlicki (2004) found that a team leader with effective transformational leadership style was beneficial to gain subordinates’ trust. Therefore, cognitive trust among team members is also a necessary element of team trust in exploring the formation of collective efficacy. As shown in Table 1, the composite reliability coefficients were all above .6, as suggested by Fornell and Larcker (1981). Of these, 92 questionnaires from 46 teams were valid, yielding a response rate of 28.75%. . The research questions to be addressed in this study include the following: (a) how do transformational leadership and team cognitive trust influence collective efficacy, which in turn affects team performance; and (b) is team performance affected by a series of mediating processes? Table 2. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Huey-Wen Chou is a professor at the Department of Information Management, National Central University in Taiwan. Such a conceptualization of team cognitive trust not only broadens the boundary of team trust beyond trust “in the leader” but also closely reflects the real cognitive aspects of a team. That is, through team cognitive trust, transformational leadership will help foster a team’s collective efficacy and leads to the distal outcome: team performance. Hypothesis 4: A transformational leadership will have an indirect positive effect, mediated through cognitive trust in the team leader on collective efficacy. 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Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership, Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust, Trust in leadership: A multi-level review and integration, A satisfying leadership behaviour model for design consultants, A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study, What makes teams work: Group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite, Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice, Trust in leaders: Existing research and emerging issues, Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment, Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error, Personality, affect, and behavior in groups, The efficacy advantage: Factors related to the formation of group efficacy, A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships, Teamwork quality and the success of innovative projects: A theoretical concept and empirical evidence, Transformational and transactional leadership in virtual and physical Environments, Estimating within-group interrater reliability with and without response bias, Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership, Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership, Transformational leadership in work groups: The role of empowerment, cohesiveness, and collective-efficacy on perceived group performance, The impact of knowledge coordination on virtual team performance over time, Removing the shadow of suspicion: The effects of apology versus denial for repairing competence-versus integrity-based trust violations, Exploring the relationship between cohesive and collective efficacy in rugby teams, Collective trust and collective action: The decision to trust as a social decision, Conducting interorganizational research using key informants, Affect-and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations, Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. First, to gain a clearer understanding of the evolution of team trust in the leadership process, a complementary longitudinal research design is suggested. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Chipunza and Gwarinda (2010) studied how the transformational leadership model impacted employees of two institutions of higher education in South Africa involved in a … As discussed earlier, transformational leadership would help to foster team cognitive trust, which in turn would positively leverage collective efficacy. Under transformational leadership, team’s cognitive trust and collective efficacy may evolve during the team development and serve as process variables that explain the distal team performance. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. The target scope of the study primarily focused on how cognitive trust and collective efficacy intervene in the transformational leadership−team performance relationship at team level. Out of the 46 teams’ interrater reliability coefficients for constructs, 7 did not exceed the threshold levels of reliability (.7) as suggested by George (1990) and were dropped from subsequent analysis. The generalizability to different contexts, such as an educational context or a sporting context, should be assumed with caution in future research. 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